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Зенитная управляемая ракета «энциан»

ЗУР «Энциан» (использовалось также обозначение FR - «Flakrakete» - зенитная ракета) разрабатывалась с 1943 г. конструкторским бюро, входившим в состав самолетостроительной фирмы «Мессершмитт». Это в определенной степени повлияло на выбор конструктивной схемы «Энциана»: беспилотный самолет «бесхвостка», по внешнему виду очень сходный с реактивным истребителем-перехватчиком Me-163. Ракета была снабжена стреловидным крылом, на задней кромке которого имелись элероны управления по крену и тангажу. На хвостовой части фюзеляжа под углом 90 град к плоскости крыла были установлены два киля со стреловидной передней кромкой и прямой задней.

Для обеспечения высокой технологичности (и низкой стоимости) ракеты ее корпус монтировался из штампованных панелей из малоуглеродистой листовой стали, соединяемых методом сварки или клепки. Крылья и кили имели деревянную конструкцию, состоявшую из соснового каркаса из реек и обшивки из буковой фанеры в несколько слоев. Крыло имело стреловидность по передней кромке 30 град, его размах составлял 4,08 м. Общая длина ракеты варианта Е-1 достигала 3,5 м, диаметр корпуса равнялся 0,915 м.

В передней части корпуса размещалась боевая часть с рекордным для зенитных ракет весом - 500 кг. Для подрыва взрывчатого вещества боевой части предполагалось использовать неконтактный взрыватель.

Силовая установка состояла из маршевого жидкостного ракетного двигателя и четырех твердотопливных стартовых ускорителей. На вариантах ракеты Е-1, Е-2 и Е-3 в качестве маршевого устанавливался ЖРД Вальтера HWK 109-739, а на вариантах Е-4 и Е-5 -ЖРД Конрада VfK 613-A01. Двигатель Вальтера был снабжен турбонасосами для подачи компонентов топлива «Т-штоф» и «Z-штоф».

Двигатель Конрада рассматривался как наиболее подходящий для ракеты «Энциан». Он работал на двухкомпонентном топливе «визоль» и «сальбай». Подача компонентов в камеру сгорания осуществлялась под давлением сжатого воздуха. Максимальная тяга, развиваемая двигателем, составляла 2000 кгс.

Сопла твердотопливных стартовых ускорителей «Шмиддинг» 109-553 располагались под некоторым углом к оси маршевого двигателя для того, чтобы линия тяги проходила через центр тяжести ракеты (таким образом повышалась устойчивость ракеты при запуске).

Каждый из этих двигателей весил 85 кг и вмещал 40 кг твердого топлива. В течение 4 секунд работы стартовые двигатели развивали тягу порядка 1750 кгс и разгоняли ракету до скорости 250 м/с, достаточной для ее запуска с пусковой установки.

В качестве пусковой установки использовалась стальная ферма, смонтированная на лафете 88-мм зенитной пушки. С помощью поворотных механизмов обеспечивалось круговое вращение фермы и грубое наведение установленной на ней ракеты на цель.

Управление ракетой в полете осуществлялось радиокомандной системой, работающей по методу совмещения. На обнаруженную с помощью РЛС воздушную цель наводилась оптическая труба, посредством которой оператор сопровождения следил за целью.

Движение этой трубы автоматически повторяла оптическая труба оператора наведения, который, наблюдая в окуляре неподвижную цель, с помощью ручки управления должен был удержать ракету на одной линии с целью.

Как и в системе управления ракеты «Шметтерлинг», в зависимости от положения ручки управления вырабатывались сигналы управления, которые после обработки в счетно-решающем устройстве передавались в виде радиосигналов на соответствующие дешифрующие устройства ракеты.

При сближении ракеты с целью срабатывал неконтактный взрыватель. Усовершенствованный вариант этой системы управления предусматривал наведение ракеты на конечном участке траектории с помощью инфракрасной головки самонаведения, а впоследствии планировалось разработать систему наведения по радиолучу с инфракрасным наведением на конечном участке.

По имеющимся сведениям, один из вариантов ЗУР «Энциан» предназначался для использования в качестве противотанковой и противокорабельной ракеты, а также для постановки дымовых завес и выполнения других задач. Эта ракета имела систему управления по проводам, основанную на методе трех точек.

До прекращения работ в марте 1945 г фирме «Мессершмитт» удалось разработать до 15 вариантов ЗУР «Энциан» (FR-1 - FR-6, Е-1 - Е-6), изготовлено же было лишь примерно 60 опытных образцов, главным образом варианта Е-1. Имеются сведения о запуске 24-38 ракет этого типа, причем 16 из таких ракет имели полный комплект аппаратуры наведения. Число удачных запусков было относительно велико - 30-35%.

По книге В.Н. Шумкова «Вермахт» – Мн.: ООО «Харвест», 2005. – 448 с.

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